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It may be safely asserted …that population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical progression of such a nature as to double itself every twenty-five years. . . . If, setting out from a tolerably well peopled country such as England, France, Italy, or Germany, we were to suppose that, by great attention to agriculture, its produce could be permanently increased every twenty-five years by a quantity equal to that which it at present produces, it would he allowing a rate of increase decidedly beyond any probability of realization. . . . Yet this would be an arithmetical progression, and would fall short, beyond all comparison, of the natural increases of population in a geometrical progression.

A man who is born into a world already possessed, if he cannot get subsistence from his parents on whom he has a just demand, and if the society do not want his labour, has no claim of right to the smallest portion of food, and, in fact, has no business to be where he is.

 We are bound in justice and honour formally to disclaim the right of the poor to support.

There must be ...  a considerable class of persons who have both the will and power to consume more material wealth than they produce, or the mercantile classes could not continue profitably to produce so much more than they consume. In this class the landlords no doubt stand preeminent; but if they were not assisted by the great mass of individuals engaged in personal services, whom they maintain, their own consumption would of itself be insufficient to keep up and increase the value of the produce, and enable the increase of its quantity more than to counterbalance the fall of its price. Nor could the capitalists in that case continue with effect the same habits of saving.

   England and America . . . suffered the least by the war, or rather were enriched by it, and they are now suffering the most by the peace. It is certainly a very unfortunate circumstance that any period should ever have occurred in which peace should appear to have been, in so marked manner, connected with distress. 

It is also of importance to know that, in our endeavours to assist the working classes in a period like the present, it is desirable to employ them in those kinds of labour, the results of which do not come for sale into the market, such as roads and public works





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