THE EDUCATION IN SOVIET UNION
Many countries are considered to be developing countries and many countries are in the process of developing. Many countries try to find economic systems or any other social systems to develop their countries. Still many of world's population are with lack of ability to read or write. Many people are with lack of education. Why is it so if a large number countries are developing countries? There are other answers in response to this question but the principal of all is the education and its role in the society. What is then the relationship between development of education and countries' economy?
The Soviet Union is one of countries which allocated considerable resources to education. The author of Joseph A. Raffaele in the book of The Economic Development of Nations, strongly emphasized the important of education for the countries' economic development. Especially, the author pointed out about the Soviet Union who offered a primary example of the use of education as an instrument of rapid economic growth(89). This shows how Soviet has been the influential country in the field of education on other countries.
The Soviet Union's school system begins in the nursery school to the universities. The average age of students as graduated university students are around 23 years of age. Each child enters an eight year primary school at the age of 7 and teachers mostly emphasize on the sciences and technical subjects. The subject of mathematics is taught for the entire 8 years of education and chemistry is for four years. After students complete their primary school program, there are three alternative choices which they can make. Depend on what each students want to do in the future determine among these choices. The students can attend secondary evening school for three years if s(he) wants to become a factory or farm worker. Other students attend secondary polytechnic schools which help students to prepare for skilled jobs or general secondary schools that lead to matriculation at higher institution or enrollment in vocational schools related to enterprises. According to the book, a primary purpose of Soviet's education is to prepare individuals for employment and to train them to participate in collective activity to promote the public good(90). Right after primary school programs, students are given the choices and it is more efficient investment of education for the future. Many other countries have the education as one of required systems and many children just follow the path of long education road.
Generally, many of the competent students in the higher learning institutions are found from the general secondary schools. The enrollment of gender is evenly divided between males and females. The colleges are essentially technical schools specializing in fields as engineering, agriculture, and economics. And more qualified students are accepted by the universities and in the field of humanities, law, economics, agriculture, medicine, and education. These are basic specialities in universities. The program runs about five to five and a half years. Also, there are education programs for substantial adult which give the workers an opportunity to continue their education either through correspondence courses or in plant training programs. The interesting and profound fact of Soviet's education program is that all education is tuition-free under Soviet law. Generally students are responsible their own expenses. By inventing better and more efficient programs of education, the Soviets imply the maximum development of producers consistent with individual abilities. Large portion of the education program is highly centered by people of labor supply and demand, which determine both the qualify and quantity of students that will be needed. There are many boarding schools and the students in boarding schools give benefits to their working parents and the students get benefits through experiencing more activities. The Soviet is the first country with millions of children whom were raised outside the family from the first months of their lives to late adolescence. The education is as greatly emphasized as isolating children from the first month from their parents. The education is not just emphasize on subject matters but also to teach the basic concepts of the moral ethics. Therefore there should be balance between distributing love, acknowledging abilities, and developing abilities of children and most importantly, the basic concept and reason of the education should be set and there should be awareness of the concept in every children's minds.
Not all countries with strong emphasis on education bring the result of high economic growth. For example, two countries of Argentina and Sweden rank about the same in educational level but Argentina ranks far below in economic growth. Therefore, it does not always bring the successful results from high education programs of the country to have economic growth. Still many developing countries face with education policy problems in their countries. Raffaele pointed out five foremost questions which each developing countries should ask to itself before they try their education system in action in the book of The Economic Development of Nations. First question one should ask is how should resources be divided among the different levels of education? Second is, what should be the distribution of college enrollments among the different faculties? Third, should the emphasis be on quality or quantity? Fourth, how much of the education load should be shifted to employers and private organizations? Fifth, what incentives should be provided to get individuals into the right education and into the right jobs?(97) Surely, the education is important part of one country's economic growth but each country should also considers about above questions before they put their thoughts in action for better result in both education system and economic development.
Raffaele, Joseph A. The Economic Development of Nations NewYork: Random House, 1971