MARXISM 1

 

    Marxism is not just economics - although economics or rather "political economy" is probably the most essential part of it. Marxism is a complex system of social sciences and it was even presumed to provide a general methodology for natural sciences.

 

Marxism consists of:  

philosophy                     "Dialectical Materialism"

sociology                       "Historical materialism"

economics                      "Political Economy"

 

Founders:

Friedrich Engels

 

(1820 - 1895).

Karl Marx  

 

(1818 - 1883)

Marxism was not invented by Marx and Engels from scratch, rather they integrated and transmuted several theories and doctrines of their predecessors.

 

Three sources of Marxism:
  

German Philosophy

Georg W. F. Hegel

 Ludwig Feuerbach  x

French Socialism

Saint-Simon  x x x

Charles Fourier   x

English Classical

Political Economy

Adam Smith 

David Ricardo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marxism acquired:  

'Dialectics'
  and theory
  of Alienation
from

Hegel,
<=====
 

'Materialism'
  and
  Humanism
  from
 Feuerbach,
     
=====>

 

 
criticism
of social 
irrationality 
and 
exploitation 
from socialists
,

St. Simon

<======
Fourier
======>

 
 

 Labor theory 
of value from
 <
==Smith
and
Ricardo
==>
The role 
of technical 
progress 
from Smith,
subsistence wage 
and income
distribution 
theory 
from Ricardo
.

 

 

 

 

Of course, there were many other predecessors. Among them a special importance had a group of English socialists known as 'Left Ricardians', who adopted Ricardian theory of value and distribution and reinterpreted it as the theory of exploitation of labor by capital. This group consisted of Robert Owen, Thomas Hodgskin, John Francis Bray and John Gray. They saw distribution of income in a capitalist society as unjust and unnatural and were striving to create a just society where workers would get the full product of their work.

LINKS: X X X X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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