From the

Evolutionary Socialism

by Eduard Bernstein

Read about Bernstein's Revisionis


It has been maintained in a certain quarter that the practical deductions from my treatises would be the abandonment of the conquest of political power by the proletariat organized politically and economically. That is quite an arbitrary deduction.

I set myself against the notion that we have to expect shortly a collapse of the bourgeois economy, and that social democracy should be induced by the prospect of such an imminent, great, social catastrophe to adapt its tactics to that assumption. That I maintain most emphatically.

The adherents of this theory of a catastrophe, base it especially on the conclusions of the Communist Manifesto. This is a mistake in every respect.


The theory which the Communist Manifesto sets forth of the evolution of modern society was correct as far as it characterized the general tendencies of that evolution. But it was mistaken in several special deductions, above all in the estimate of the time the evolution would take, the last has been unreservedly acknowledged by Friedrich Engels ... it  is evident that if  social evolution takes much greater period of time than was assumed, it must also take upon itself forms and lead to forms that were not foreseen and could not be foreseen then.

Social conditions have not developed to such an acute opposition of things and classes as is depicted in the Manifesto. It is not only useless, it is the greatest folly to attempt to conceal this from ourselves. The number of members of the possessing classes is to-day not small but larger. The enormous increase of social wealth is not accompanied by a decreasing number of large capitalists but by an increasing number of capitalists of all degrees. The middle classes change their character but they do not disappear from the social scale.


The concentration in productive industry is not being accomplished even today in all  its departments with equal thoroughness and equal rate. In great many branches of production, it certainly justifies the forecast of the socialist critic of society; but in other branches it lags even today behind them. The process of concentration in agriculture proceeds still more slowly. Trade statistics show an extraordinarily elaborated graduation  of enterprises in regard to size. No rung of the ladder is disappearing from it...

In all advanced countries we see the privileges of the capitalist bourgeoisie yielding step by step to democratic organizations. Under the influence of this, and driven by the movement of the working classes which is daily becoming stronger, a social reaction has set in against the exploiting tendencies of capital, a counter-action which, although it still proceeds timidly and feebly, yet does exist, and is always drawing more departments of economic life under its influence. Factory legislation, the democratizing of local government, and the extension of it area of work, the freeing of trade unions and systems of co-operative trading from legal restrictions, the considerations of standard conditions of labor in the work undertaken by public authorities--all these characterize this phase of the evolution.


 But the more the political organizations of the modern nations are democratized the more the needs and oppor­tunities of great political catastrophes are diminished. He who holds firmly to the catastrophic theory of evolution must, with all his power, withstand and hinder the evolu­tion described above, which, indeed, the logical defender of that theory formerly did. But is the conquest of politi­cal power by the proletariat simply to be by a political catastrophe? Is it to be the appropriation and utilization of the power of the state by the proletariat exclusively against the whole non-proletarian world?  

He who replies in the affirmative must be reminded of two things. In 1872, Marx and Engels announced in the preface to the new edition of The Communist Manifesto that the Paris Commune had exhibited a proof that "the working classes cannot simply take possession of the ready-made state machine and set it in motion for their own aims" And in 1895 Friedrich Engels stated in detail in the preface to Class Struggles in France that the time of political surprises, of the "revolutions of small conscious minorities at the head of unconscious masses" was today  at an end, that a collision on a large scale with the military would be the means of checking the steady growth of social democracy and of even throwing it back for time in short, that social democracy would flourish far better by lawful than by unlawful means and by violent revolution. And he points out in conformity with this opinion that the next task of the party should be "to work for an uninterrupted increase of its vote" or to carry on slow propaganda of parliamentary activity.  


Thus Engels, who, nevertheless, as his numerical examples show still somewhat overestimated the rate of process of the evolution! Shall we be told that he abandoned the conquest of political power by the working classes because he wished to avoid the steady growth of social democracy secured by lawful means being interrupted by a political revolution?  

If not, and if one subscribes to his conclusions, one cannot reasonably take any offense if it is declared that for a long time yet the task of social democracy is, instead of speculating on a great economic crash, "to organize the working classes politically and develop them as a democ­racy and to fight for all reforms in the state which are adapted to raise the working classes and transform the state in the direction of democracy."  

That is what I have said in my impugned article and what I still maintain in its full import. As far as concerns the question propounded above it is equivalent to Engels' dictum, for democracy is, at any given time, as much government by the working classes as these are capable of practising according to their intellectual ripeness and the degree of social development they have attained. Engels, indeed, refers at the place just mentioned to the fact that The Communist Manifesto has "proclaimed the con­quest of the democracy as one of the first tasks of the fighting proletariat."     


In short, Engels is so thoroughly convinced that the tactics based on the presumption of a catastrophe have had their day, that he even considers a revision of them necessary in the Latin countries where tradition is much more favorable to them than in Germany. "If the condi­tions of war between nations have altered," he writes, “no less have those for the war between classes." Has this already been forgotten?  

No one has questioned the necessity for the working classes to gain the control of  government. The point at issue is between the theory of social cataclysm and the question whether with the given social development in Germany, and the present advanced state of its working classes in the towns and the country, a sudden catas­trophe would be desirable in the interest of the social democracy. I have denied it and deny it again, because in my judgment a greater security for lasting success lies in a steady advance than in the possibilities offered by a catastrophic crash.  

And, as I am firmly convinced that important periods in the development of nations cannot be leapt over, I lay the greatest value on the next tasks of social democracy on the struggle for the political rights of the working man, on the political activity of working men in town and country for the interests of their class, as well as on the work of the industrial organization of the workers.  


In this sense I wrote the sentence that the movement means everything for me and that what is usually called "the final aim of socialism" is nothing: and in this sense write it down again today. Even if the word "usually” had not shown that the proposition was only to be under stood conditionally, it was obvious that it could not ex press indifference concerning the final carrying out of socialist principles, but only indifference-or, as it would be better expressed, carelessness-as to the form of the final arrangement of things. I have at no time had an excessive interest in the future, beyond general principles; I have not been able to read to the end of any picture of the future. My thought and efforts are concerned with the duties of the present and the nearest future, and I only busy myself with the perspectives beyond so far as they give me a line of conduct for suitable action now.  

The conquest of political power by the working classes the expropriation of capitalists are no ends in themselves but only means for the accomplishment of certain aims and endeavors. As such they are demands in the pro­gram of social democracy and are not attacked by me. Nothing can be said beforehand as to the circumstances of their accomplishments; we can only fight for their real­ization. But the conquest of political power necessitates the possession of political rights; and the most important problem of tactics which German social democracy has at the present time to solve, appears to me to be to devise the best ways for the extension of the political and eco­nomic rights of the German working classes. . .  





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