Footnotes and references

 

* I am indebted to Ludmila Kyn and Ruth Polak - Getter for research asistance and editorial help on the final version of the paper.

 

1

The Gini coefficients calculated recently by F. Paukert (ILO 1973), S. Jain (World Bank 1976), J. Slama (this volume) and Peter Wiles (Distribution of Income: East and West, North Holland Publishing House 1974) show that socialist countries of Eastern Europe have considerably smaller differences in personal incomes than other countries.

2

 "The first phase of communism, cannot yet provide justice and equality: differences, and unjust differences in wealth will still persist . . . the mere conversion of the means of production into the common property of the whole of society. . . does not remove the defects of distribution and the inequality . . . which continues to prevail so long as products are divided ‘according to the amount of labor performed’ ". (Lenin: State and Revolution, chapter V. paragraph 3, quoted from Lenin: On Politics and Revolution, New York 1968, pp. 222, 223).

3

"Skilled labor counts only as simple labor intensified, or rather, as multiplied simple labor, a given quantity of skilled labor being considered equal to a greater quantity of simple labor." (K. Marx: Capital vol. I, chapter 1 quoted from R. C. Tucker: Marx-Engels Reader, New York,1972, p. 206).

4 K. Marx: Critique of the Gotha Program, part I quoted from R. C. Tucker, op. cit. p. 387.
5 K. Marx: Critique of the Gotha Program, part I quoted from R. C. Tucker, op. cit. p. 387.
6  K. Marx: Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts quoted from E. Fromm: Marx’s Concept of Man, New York 1974, p. 125.
7

K. Marx: Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts quoted from E. Fromm op.cit. pp. 124,125.

8  K. Marx: Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts quoted from E. Fromm op.cit. p. 125.
9  K. Marx: Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts quoted from E. Fromm op.cit. p. 127.
10  K. Marx: Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts quoted from E. Fromm op.cit. p. 132.
11  Average monthly wages in the socialist sector of the Czechoslovak economy (in Kcs)
1955 1960 1970 1974
Czech Republic 1201 1375 1946 2243
Slovak Republic 1132 1330 1910 2203

Source: Statistical Yearbook of CSSR 1966, p.115 and 1975, p. 141.

12  Earnings in other selected professions in Czechoslovakia 1965
Profession

Average
monthly
earnings
in Kcs

Leading manager in engineering industry 4 692
Chief doctor of a regional hospital 3 381
Scientific worker (graduate)3 022
Locomotive driver2 363
Foreman in heavy engineering 2 149
Lawyer (graduate) 1 937
Labourer (5th wage class)1 757
Dairywoman 1 632
Elementar school teacher 1 288
Shop assistant1 011
Charwoman 940
Nursery nurse 802

 Source: Jaroslav Krejci, Social change and Stratification in Postwar Czechoslovakia, London 1972, p. 72.

13  J. Adam, op.cit. p. 86
14

 Zatrudnienie w gospodarce narodowej 1970, Statystyka Polski Nr 95;
Zatrudnienie w gospodarce narodowej 1971, Statystyka Polski Nr 123;
Zatrudnienie i place wed
lug wojewodztw 1971, Statystyka Polski Nr 125.

 

 

 

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