Footnotes:

This is a summary version. More complete information on methodology, data used, sources, definitions and further analysis can be found in Papanek and Kyn (n.d.).

1

For 44 countries observations were for one year only, 39 had observations for two or more years. Pooling of cross-section and time series data resulted in 145 observations over 1952 to 1978 period.

2

The variable used is the percent of primary exports to GDP.

3

The variable is the percent of manufactured exports to GDP.

4

For details of these F-tests, see the basic paper.

5

Parallel Kuznets curves is, of course, also the standard implicit assumption of all cross-section tests, the great bulk of empirical work

6

Ahluwalia [in Chenery et al. (1974)J and Fields (1981) also conclude that time series show no deterioration in the share of the poor.

 

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