This is a summary version. More complete information on methodology, data used, sources, definitions and further analysis can be found in Papanek and Kyn (n.d.).


For 44 countries observations were for one year only, 39 had observations for two or more years. Pooling of cross-section and time series data resulted in 145 observations over 1952 to 1978 period.


The variable used is the percent of primary exports to GDP.


The variable is the percent of manufactured exports to GDP.


For details of these F-tests, see the basic paper.


Parallel Kuznets curves is, of course, also the standard implicit assumption of all cross-section tests, the great bulk of empirical work


Ahluwalia [in Chenery et al. (1974)J and Fields (1981) also conclude that time series show no deterioration in the share of the poor.


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