Publications  Income Distribution

Table 2

Factors in income distribution (shifting Kuznets curve).

 

GINI coefficient

Share of the poorest 40%

Left-hand variable

(9)

(10)

(11)

(13)

(14)

(15)

Constant

-1.468

(-2.13)

-0.0891

(-1.46)

-0.826

(-1.47)

84.45

(2.48)

36.93

(2.22)

60.81

(1.91)

Shifting Kuznets curve

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time

0.086

(2.143)

0.052

(1.495)

0.053

(1.470)

-3.42

(-1.64)

-2.12

(-1.15)

-1.92

(-1.01)

Log (INC)

0.695

(2.916)

0.488

(2.317)

0.460

(2.096)

-24.54

(-2.06)

-18.20

(-1.70)

-15.27

(-1.36)

T* Log (INC)

-0.030

(-2.22)

-0.018

(-1.49)

-0.018

(-1.45)

1.16

(1.60)

0.67

(1.06)

0.60

(0.90)

Log (INC)2

-0.061

(-3.01)

-0.041

(-2.30)

-0.039

(-2.07)

2.08

(2.05)

1.45

(1.59)

1.20

(1.25)

T* Log (INC) 2

0.0026

(2.260)

0.0015

(1.498)

0.0015

(1.450)

-0.095

(-1.54)

-0.052

(-0.97)

-0.045

(-0.81)

Social factors

 

 

 

 

 

 

East Europe

 

-0.126

(-2.96)

-0.124

(-2.98)

 

7.01

(3.48)

6.81

(3.33)

Dual society

 

0.048

(2.584)

0.039

(2.063)

 

-1.77

(-2.02)

-1.53

(-1.69)

Government

intervention

 

-0.0005

(-0.87)

-0.0006

(-0.001)

 

-0.0042

(-0.170)

-0.0004

(-0.017)

Education

 

-0.001

(-2.14)

-0.001

(-2.062)

 

0.045

(1.69)

0.040

(1.64)

Economic factors

 

 

 

 

 

 

Growth rate

 

 

0.00002

(0.007)

 

 

-0.069

(-0.42)

Primary

exports

 

 

0.00103

(1.682)

 

 

-0.040

(-1.36)

Manufactured exports

 

 

0.00024

(0.377)

 

 

0.0016

(0.05)

Statistics

 

 

 

 

 

 

R2

0.374

0.550

0.561

0.376

0.546

0.554

SER

0.089

0.076

0.076

4.04

3.51

3.52

F

7.22

10.53

8.927

6.63

9.37

7.88

t-statistics in parentheses. Not shown are the six corrective dummy variables or regressions (12) and (16).

 

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